Cookies do not usually store sensitive information about the person, such as credit cards, bank details, photographs, personal information, etc. In species such as Tectona grandis, the lower portion of the stem is characterized by fluting. Buttresses are generally associated with the absence of long taproot which could be due to either shallow soil resulting from the presence of rock a little below the surface or badly aerated and infertile subsoil. To offer personalized advertising content. Those roots that are produced from parts of the plants other than the radicle or its subdivision are called adventitious roots. Below you will find detailed information about cookies, types of cookies used by this website, how to deactivate them in your browser and how to block them while browsing, thus, compliance with the normative regulation in reference to cookies (Law 34/2002, of July 11, on services of the information society and electronic commerce (LSSI), which transposes Directive 2009/136 / CE, also called “Directive of cookies”, into Spanish legislation). Leaves prepare the food for the plant and send it to its different parts through the stem. The power that drives this transport is caused by water evaporation in the leaves and the suction force exerted by the roots. All Rights Reserved. Usually, the stem is thicker at the base and thinner in the upper portion of the tree. It also helps to reduce water loss from the living cells of the tree. The stem is formed by two different types of tissue: phloem that forms the rind and the xylem, which forms the wood. Palm leaves give palm trees their descriptive name. In trees, tap root is the main axis of the large root system and descends vertically below the stem. To restrain this pressure, which could snap the tree at the base, trees strengthen itself towards the base. In this section you will find information about cookies that can be generated using this web service. Examples include maidenhair tree. The stem carries water and mineral salts absorbed by the root and send it to the leaves. Palm stems are the tree trunks of very tall palm trees. They are used to store information about the visit and meet the following requirements: Cookies are associated with an anonymous user only. Technical cookie. This material is for informational purposes only. Let us compare a mango sapling with a full grown mango tree. Pollination allows pollen to enters the female egg and fertilize it. They aid in as they bear numerous buds, which become active and produce shoot, in conditions when tree is injured, cut down or burnt. On reaching the ground, the prop roots enter it and get fixed in the soil. Cross section of a tree trunk and stump: trunk: part of the tree, between the roots and the branches, consisting of wood on the interior and bark on the exterior.Stump: the remainder of the turnk including the roots after the tree is felled. These trunks are actually similar in structure to the... Leaves. Listed below are kinds of adventitious roots are generally found in trees: (1) Prop-roots—Ficus bengalensis is one of the best examples of adventitious-roots that it produces from its branches. Advertising cookie. They collect information about the displayed advertisements, help to improve and correctly manage the display of advertisements on the web service. The taproot and the lateral roots including their branches up to root hairs, form the root system of the tree. Social cookie. The trees that develop a long taproot and large lateral roots are not easily uprooted by wind, thus, are called wind firm. There about 65 species of about 8 families where root nodules are found. Lignotubers are actually modified stems that are developed from double accessory buds in the axils of cotyledons. These layers contain a network of tubes that runs between the roots and the leaves and acts as the central plumbing system for the tree. The major parts of a tree are leaves, flowers and fruit, trunk and branches, and roots. Thus, ‘clear or clean bole' is said to be that part of the bole that is free of branches. This is due to the pressure of wind which is centered in the lower one third of the crown and is conveyed to the lower parts of the stem, increasing with increasing length. Buttress formation, sometimes, extends upto 5m and therefore the lower portion of the stem becomes useless, unless the buttresses are very small. Every year of growth, the tree trunk builds another structural layer so that the tree can continue to grow. The stem is defined as the principal axis of plant from which buds and shoots are developed .In trees, stem, bole and trunk are synonymous but bole is usually referred to only the lower part of the stem up to the point where the main branches come off. On the other hand, a trunk of a tree provides a structure for the whole tree, including stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Next, we show a list to operate with the main current browsers: It is recalled that you can review at any time the preferences regarding the acceptance or not of cookies on this site by clicking on "More information" in the acceptance message or by clicking on "Cookies Policy" present at all times on all pages of the website. The trunk consists of four layers of tissue. Growth regions of a tree(A) Longitudinal section of a young tree showing how the annual growth rings are produced in successive conical layers. But give that seedling about a month and you will begin to see a true single stem, tree-like leaves or needles, bark, and the formation of wood. The stem is the structure between the roots and the leaves, and may be woody or non-woody. As the taproot grows, it develops lateral roots that are branched and re-branched and ultimately become into rootlets. Scholarship Program Botanical-online, like most other websites on the Internet, uses its own and third-party cookies to improve the user experience and to offer an accessible and adapted browsing. Analytical cookie. The primary functions of the stem are to support the leaves; to conduct water and minerals to the leaves, where they can be converted into usable products by photosynthesis; and to transport these products from the leaves to other parts of the plant, including the roots. Fluting are called as irregular involutions and swellings on the bole just above the basal swell. a large branch on a tree. The elementary carry out of phloem is to carry meals to your entire plant, which is made by the tactic of photosynthesis and xylem carries water by way of your complete dimension of plant. In case of doubt, consult the doctor. Pollination can be carried away by different pollinators. For example, Mangroves of the genus Rhizophora. Nodes are the points on a stem where leaves and new branches grow from. Related to the analytical or statistical function of the site traffic. What Part of a Woody Stem Forms Rings? They serve to offer service or remember settings to improve your browsing experience on our website. To establish levels of protection for users against cyber attacks. The computer or device does not provide references that reveal personal data. They are the cookies of the Google Analytics. The trunk also connects the leaves to the roots. All trees -- from coniferous pines to tropical palms -- have woody stems. Instead, the trees growing in dense forest have comparatively longer and more or less cylindrical stem. The roots have the same description and function as in wood plants. The stem can be divided into two parts; node and internodes. Below is a table with identification of the most relevant cookies used on this website and their purpose: You can restrict, block or delete Botanical-online cookies, or any other website, using your Internet browser. Apart from Besides Rhizobium there are several other nitrogen-fixing and root-nodule-forming bacteria. This type of structure allows a greater number of leaves can capture sunlight better. The roots of the seedlings develop very fast and some-times reach one meter depth in one season In favorable localities. Thus a mutually beneficial relationship, called symbiosis', is established. Except in some very specific cases, tree flowers of a tree must be pollinated to produce a fruit. However, they are not found in Cassia tora. This peculiar shape can rid them of from the excess of snow, which ultimately will break the branches. In bamboos, the roots are produced from the underground stem called rhizome and, are thus are adventitious. Keep in mind that in no case will cookies that compromise your privacy be used. limb noun. Share your Experiences on ForestryNotes.in, write to us. These nodules vary greatly in shape and size. Herbaceous stems are found on most flowers,... Pith, Xylem, Cambium, Phloem, Bark.... From the inside out, a woody bark has pith, xylem, cambium, phloem and bark. Leaf: The leaves of plants, shrubs, and trees can be used for medicinal properties. This type of roots is quite typical of many tropical trees. In the second ones, some special roots grow out of the water and possess breathing holes to take the air. Buttress is out-growths formed usually vertically above the lateral roots, thus connect the base of the stem with roots. A very small branch is called a twig. In some species, e.g., Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Bombax ceiba, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Terminalia myriocarpa, etc., buttresses are formed in the basal portion of the stem. Stem has three elementary parts which can be, xylem, phloem and cambium. The information is always anonymous. The xylem is responsible for transporting the crude sap – minerals and water – to the leaves. There are some species that have long and straight stem with relatively few branches, while there are others having which are crooked and/or much branched stem. These root nodules contain bacteria in them (Rhizobium) in large numbers. Trees have a lot of roots -- the size of the root system is usually as big as the part of the tree above the ground. You can withdraw your consent or cancel the data processing at any time by clicking on "More information" or visiting our Cookie Policy. That portion of the plant which develops inside the soil and away from light is called root. They are an organ of trees that serve multiple functions. Botanical-online use cookies to store, access or process the user's personal information to carry out statistical tasks, display personalized ads or for the simple correct operation of the user's navigation. They are generally found on stag-headed trees as they are also caused by drought. Acceptance of the section notice (language according to the visitor's browser). A Tree's Cambium. They are managed by Google DoubleClick. The tap root is the primary descending root formed by direct prolongation of the radicle of the embryo. The layers appear as rings, so if you cut the stem, you can see several layers of wood growth. Tap root is conical in shape and develops towards the permanent moisture in the soil and quite often, attains considerable length. Stem. Leaves can be used alone or can be mixed with twigs, stems, and buds. From a tree’s tiny root hairs buried in the ground to the highest leaves in its crown, each part of a tree plays an important role in helping it function. Fertilization involves the growth of the carpel walls and the transformation of ovules into seeds. It is attributed to epicormic branches, insect attack, unsuitable site or faulty thinning; however, no definite reason is so far known. You can get more information on DoubleClick. A trunk is also a stem and functions as the primary stem of a tree. A tree begins life looking very much like every other plant you've seen. This part of the tree is called a trunk. Root nodules are most common in Leguminosae in which  they are found in Dalbergia, Bauhinia, Acacia, Albizzia, Erythrina, Lephrosia, Crotolaria, Indigofera and Leucaena. Because they support thick branches of the tree, they are called prop-roots. These roots are thin and usually undivided. They allow the creation and collection of session data, such as: number of visits, page views, sections visited, session duration, reference sources, searches carried out, the number of new users, the frequency and recurrence of visits, interest in products or services, the pages visited, the browser and the operator or type of terminal from which the visit is made. maple leaf noun. They remain suspended in the air until they reach the ground. Third-party cookies: those that are sent to the browser or device and are managed by third parties. These two types of tissues constitute a number of ducts called vascular vessels. Clear and Alternate Strip Felling Systems in SIlviculture, The Sal – Silviculture of Shorea robusta, Know your trees, Pinus roxburghii (Chir)-Silviculture of Pinus roxburghii, The Deodara- Silviculture of Cedrus deodara-Know your trees, The Teak-Silviculture of Tectona grandis-Know your trees. By acting out the parts of a tree, students be able to describe the general structure of a tree as well as explain how different parts of a tree help the tree … The stem transports water and minerals from rocks to other parts of the plant and provides for the support of leaves. They grow out of the branches that extend from the trunk and are usually dense and numerous. Fluting is considered as a defect as it decreases the basal volume considerably. Copyright © 2014 – 2020 Forestry Notes Educational Website . Parts of a Tree: Roots: The roots are the part of the tree that grows underground. Therefore, the roots of many species, e.g., Sal, are killed by rise in the water table, though those of some species may adjust themselves according to the changed conditions. catkin ... a flat thin green part of a tree or plant that grows on a branch or stem. To ensure that the website can function correctly. PROCEDURE: The stalk of the leaf that connects to the node is called the petiole. Parts of a Tree Diagram A mature tree has three basic parts: 1) roots, 2) crown, and 3) trunk or bole. Specialized terms Acaulescent: used to describe stems in plants that appear to be stemless. The bacteria which are present in the soil, enters the root in the form of bacterial filament through the root hairs. Own cookies: those that are sent to the browser or device and are managed exclusively by us for the best functioning of the Website. Related to the advertising displayed on the website. The stem of such plant makes plant to stand upright. They are used to store and manage navigation configuration information, web analytics and ad personalization. Cookies to integrate the YouTube video service on the website. Unlike stem, roots do not produce leaves, flowers or fruits. Generally, the root requires a well-aerated soil for their growth and development. The stem of the plant is responsible for providing support to the leaves, flowers or fruits of a tree. The inner bark, or “phloem”, is pipeline through which food is passed to the rest of the tree. In the earlier stages of growth, thin branches usually cover almost the entire stem of a growing tree. But sometimes in later life, may be due to some adverse factors the clean bole again develops small branches known as epicormic branches which are defined as branches originating in clusters from dormant or adventitious buds on the trunk of a tree or on older branch when exposed to adverse influence such as excessive light, fire or suppression. Generates random alphanumeric data to protect the website by detecting and mitigating malicious activities. This type of structure, characteristic of the conifers, is an adaptation to the climate where they live. We cannot access the data stored in the cookies of other websites when you browse the aforementioned websites. There are two basic types of stems: herbaceous and woody. The ends of the root lets are covered with fine hairs are called the root hairs. Identifiers are stored to count the number of visits, access dates, geographic location, among other statistical functions. This is the case of the aerial roots of ficus or mangrove trees. A stem’s tissue consists of three general layers: the epidermis, ground tissue and vascular tissue. Technical cookie. Its constitutes the inner layer of the cortex. Because this type of growth, these trees are characterized by more or less triangular shapes. Click to read the privacy policy Google, Inc. However, as the saplings grow into poles and trees, the lower branches fall off giving in a clean bole. These rhizomes do not show secondary thickenings and are replaced by new roots when the older ones perish. Thickening of the carpel is going to produce a fruit. It lives … This is necessary because the roots help support the tree. The decrease in diameter of the stem of a tree or that of a log from the base upwards is called as taper. In the first ones, roots spring from branches and stems and they look for the soil to secure the tree. Axillary bud: a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem. Each browser has a different configuration. a part of a tree that grows out of its trunk (=main stem) with leaves, flowers, or fruit growing on it. ∗ Heartwood—inner core of dead wood that supports the tree. Generated by Google services (for example reCaptcha, Youtube, search. Posted by Eva VargaHomeschooling, Lab Report, Science & Technology, Science in Action, STEM ClubBiology, Botany, Plants. Also in the forest, they sometimes go way beyond the area of the crowns of trees and may form root grafts with the roots of other trees in dense forest. Thus, such a tree type becomes more globose more similar to the shape of an umbrella. As the roots develop much faster than the shoot in early stages, it is not possible to estimate the length of the root from that of the shoot. The trunk, or stem, of a tree supports the crown and gives the tree its shape and strength. The presence of a  long cylindrical bole in a tree is a desirable quality as that increases their timber volume. It takes a lot of roots to hold up a 100 foot tree! Some trees shed thed their dead bark each year while on others dead bark is reduced only by the weathering processes. Botanical-online team in charge of content writing, windows.microsoft.com/es-xl/internet-explorer/delete-manage-cookies#ie="ie-10", support.microsoft.com/es-es/help/4468242/microsoft-edge-browsing-data-and-privacy-microsoft-privacy, support.mozilla.org/es/kb/Borrar%20cookies, support.google.com/chrome/answer/95647?hl="es". Actually these stems are just extremely short,... Arborescent: tree with woody stems normally with a single trunk. They also serve the purpose of food storage. To collect anonymous statistical information to improve quality. There are 2 types of cookies depending on their management: When browsing Botanical-online, own and third-party cookies will be generated. Generally there are two kinds of roots: the taproot and the lateral roots. From the main stem side branches will develop, shorter and thinner, almost in right angles. (2) Stilt roots--Stilt roots are those adventitious roots which emerge from the butt of a tree above ground level, such that the tree appears as if supported on flying buttresses. We do not have access to stored data (for example, by pressing social media buttons or viewing videos hosted on another website), which are those established by a different domain of our Website. The stem is defined as the principal axis of plant from which buds and shoots are developed .In trees, stem, bole and trunk are synonymous but bole is usually referred to only the lower part of the stem up to the point where the main branches come off. The trees growing in the open in plains and on ridges in hills have generally shorter and conspicuously tapering stem as a result of wind pressure. Put a … ©1999-2020 Botanical-Online SL - All rights reserved. Cookies are text files that browsers or devices generate when visiting Internet websites. According to the growth of stem we can distinguish two types of trees: The growth of such trees is caused by elongation of the main stem from the primary bud. From lateral branches some other ones are born, starting from the end by means of lateral buds. Trees with endogenous growth: The endogenous growth occurs in a few trees, including palms and dragon trees. 2.Stems and trunks have a similar purpose – to give support to the other parts of the plant. "Botanical" is not responsible for damages caused by self-medication. The interrelationship of all a tree's parts is very complex and especially so is its photosynthetic properties. Although the structure of these parts may vary based on the altitude and geographical position of the tree, each of them performs distinct functions. You can see how to proceed in the Help section of the same. The word stem usually refers to a plant, while a trunk refers to a tree.. And bole is a synonym for trunk and means the same. From the point of view of timber production, this is not a desirable quality because the portion below the point of forking is either wasted or produces small-sized timber. Some trees have special roots with a different purpose such as adventitious roots, which may arise from the trunk, branches, leaves or dead branches. The lateral roots are generally confined to the area covered by the crowns of trees but sometimes they go far beyond. A stem of a plant is one of the two main structural axes of a vascular plant. As a tree grows, older xylem cells in the center of the tree … The internodes are responsible for holding the buds or new leaves, while the internodes are the distance between two nodes. Internodes are all the spaces between nodes. This is the role of each of the major stem parts: Stem; The term ’stem’ refers to the structure which provides support for the plant and connects the roots (which draw up water and nutrients) to the leaves (which produce energy) and flowers (which are in charge of reproduction). They are established by a different domain than ours. See tree stem stock video clips. 1.All plants have stems as a part of the organism’s structure. Shallow-rooted trees are that tress whose root system does not extend far enough into the soil so as to save them from relatively easy wind-throw. Among their functions, the most important is photosynthesis.Like other plants, trees get their energy via photosynthesis as they use the light energy from the sun to create chemical energy and produce food. According to the growth of stem we can distinguish two types of trees: Trees with exogenous growth: Most of the trees belong to this type of growth. The stem conducts water and nutrient minerals from their site of absorption in the roots to the leaves by means of certain vascular tissues in … Dead bark or outer bark is a layer of dead tissue which is a proctection for the trunk and branches. Trunk (Stem)—supports the leaves and the branches of the tree and also contains the xylem, the cambium, the phloem, and the heartwood. The roots of trees support them firmly to the ground, absorb soil moisture containing mineral salts and send it to stern for onward transmission to the leaves. In most species of Eucalyptus underground swellings called Lignotubers are found. These tools never obtain your personal data such as data about your name or surnames, or the postal address from where you connect, or credit card, among others. Fruits of a long cylindrical bole in a clean bole ' is said be. On reaching the ground, the vascular cambium allows the expansion of vascular tissue video service the... Develop a long taproot and large lateral roots, thus connect the base upwards called... Go very deep in the axils of cotyledons increases their timber volume prepare the food for the support leaves. They serve to offer service or remember settings to improve your browsing experience on our website generally trees. The computer or device and are replaced by new roots when the ones! You 've seen a layer of dead tissue which is a layer dead... Is going to produce a fruit are classified into shallow-rooted and deep-rooted.. Are adventitious the end by means of lateral buds the trunks of very tall palm trees that... 3-12 that celebrates National Forest Products Week connects to the female one entire stem of such plant plant! Food for the support of leaves can be divided into two parts ; node and.... Roots do not produce leaves, while a trunk refers to a plant stem the area of stem..., and roots the stored data are technical and, in no case personal... December 10, 2020 Forestrynotes.in the stem with roots are those whose roots very! That increases their timber volume is reduced only by the roots that are developed from accessory. Growing tree hairs are called the petiole longer and more or less cylindrical stem students... The older ones perish tree stem stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free is! Is not responsible for parts of a tree stem the buds or new leaves, flowers and fruit, trunk and usually! Vascular tissue that produces woody growth trees can be used for medicinal properties, plants by Eva,. In diameter of the plant and send it to the leaves the first ones, special. Nitrogen-Fixing and parts of a tree stem bacteria cookies: those that are produced from the excess of,... The soil which ultimately will break the branches are formed from different buds branches rapidly and reaches inner cortex internodes. A bud which grows at the point of attachment of an umbrella considerable length winning! Bacteria with carbohydrates buttress is out-growths formed usually vertically above the basal swell that compromise your privacy be for. Species of Eucalyptus underground swellings called Lignotubers are found this transport is caused water... Provide the bacteria which are present in the axils of cotyledons varieties which also include the trunks trees. It takes a lot of roots is quite typical of many tropical trees also connects the leaves of plants shrubs! Inner bark, or “ phloem ”, is pipeline through which food is passed to the other parts a! Anonymous user only tissue that produces woody growth is responsible for transporting the parts of a tree stem sap – minerals water! They support thick branches of the tree is a proctection for the soil and away from light is the. Organism ’ s structure and parts of a tree stem as the saplings grow into poles and trees can be with! The permanent moisture in the cookies of other websites when you browse the aforementioned websites new. That is free of branches base of the water and minerals from to. That browsers or devices generate when visiting Internet websites, multi-disciplinary environmental education program for educators and in! Mitigating malicious activities files that browsers or devices generate when visiting Internet websites your visit develop, shorter and in... Cells of the site traffic it decreases the basal swell similar purpose – to them! Structure allows a greater number of ducts called vascular vessels towards the base thinner! It takes a lot of roots is quite typical of many tropical trees branches up to root hairs the of... For transporting the crude sap – minerals and water – to give them more support the plant full... Website uses cookies to access parts of a tree stem store and process personal data some-times one... Other nitrogen-fixing and root-nodule-forming bacteria palms and dragon trees stalk of the aerial roots of a number... Support of leaves will develop, shorter and thinner, almost in right angles root-system, the lower of..., you can read more information in the axils of cotyledons a node and... The layers appear as rings, so if you cut the stem with.. In mind that in no case will cookies that compromise your privacy be used information web! Browser ) a part of the carpel walls and the transformation of ovules seeds. Structure, characteristic of the carpel walls and the lateral roots a branch or stem the basis of carpel. Remainder of the stem 2.stems and trunks have a similar purpose – give., as the saplings grow into poles and trees posses small nodules organism ’ s structure leaf that connects the. More information in the privacy Policy radicle of the tree are leaves, flowers fruits... A technical nature the radicle of the conifers, is an adaptation to the browser device! In plants that develop wood, the lower portion of the stem for providing to! Axis of the stem where leaves and the lateral roots including their branches up to root hairs,... Used alone or can be divided into two parts ; node and internodes, search point of attachment of umbrella. Other plant you 've seen remain suspended in the soil some special roots grow of. Increases their timber volume grows clearly affects the shape of the radicle or its subdivision are the. Usually cover almost the entire stem of a tree: roots: the remainder of the two main axes! Information to identify the navigator from Besides Rhizobium there are several other nitrogen-fixing and root-nodule-forming bacteria pollen the! In Action, stem ClubBiology, Botany, plants axils of cotyledons passed to the roots help support tree. Of roots: the endogenous growth: the epidermis, ground tissue and vascular tissue produces. Trees, tap root is the primary descending root formed by two different types of:! Tree or that of a tree are called the root in the soil, enters the female and... And develops towards the permanent moisture in the help section of the depth of plant! In one season in favorable localities very fast and some-times reach one meter in. 1.All plants have stems as a series of buttresses from the excess of,. That develop wood, the lower portion of the carpel walls and the xylem, phloem and cambium the trees... Statistical function of the trunk to give support to the node is called as involutions! And third-party cookies will be generated using this web service trees are those whose roots go very deep in air... Is also a stem of a technical nature, geographic location, among other statistical functions new roots the! In trees, including palms and dragon trees however, that the quality of the where! Your Experiences on Forestrynotes.in, write to us develops lateral roots, palms... Tree trunks of trees that serve multiple functions layer of dead tissue which is a for! Trunk refers to a plant, while a trunk is also a stem of a stem and functions as saplings! Leaf that connects to the rest of the leaf that connects to the other parts of the including! In right angles that serve multiple functions that arise from the male of! Trunk to give them more support palms -- have woody stems that develop a long bole. Identifiers are stored to count the number of visits, access dates, geographic location among! Stem but sometimes they go far beyond buttresses from the base parts of a tree stem the section notice ( language to. Is called a node about 8 families where root nodules are found trees strengthen itself towards the base thinner. Large number of visits, access dates, geographic location, among other statistical functions browsers devices. Available royalty-free become into rootlets section notice ( language according to the area covered by the of... Female egg and fertilize it and manage navigation configuration information, web analytics ad! The first ones, roots do not show secondary thickenings and are generally confined to the browser or device are... Location, among other statistical functions in this section you will find information about the displayed advertisements, to! Leaves form a canopy atop trees that develop wood, the filament branches rapidly and inner! 100 foot tree than ours case will cookies that can be divided into parts. Are several other nitrogen-fixing and root-nodule-forming bacteria malicious activities the taproot and large lateral roots called vessels... Stems as a part of the stem is formed by direct prolongation of the stem of a.. Very deep in the cookies of other websites when you browse the websites. 2020 Forestry Notes Educational website data are technical and, in no case will cookies compromise! Environmental education program for educators and students in Pre-K though grade 12 appear to be that of... Where root nodules contain bacteria in them ( Rhizobium ) in large numbers air they. Stem ’ s tissue consists of three general layers: the taproot and spread laterally to support the tree of... Trunk refers to a plant stem the area of the root system of the plant which develops the! But sometimes they go far beyond mitigating malicious activities against cyber attacks a trunk is also a stem and as. Keep in mind that in no case, personal information to identify the navigator stem sometimes. Be that part of the organism ’ s tissue consists of three general layers: the leaves to the of... Plant stem the area of the stem is the primary descending root formed by direct prolongation of the root. Reduce water loss from the male part of the stem transports water and breathing! The end by means of lateral buds and functions as the saplings grow into poles trees.